VOL 5, NO. 2, Summer, 2003

© 2003 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
Charles Ives' Variations On "America"
The String Space
The Lone Arranger Space
The Brass Space
The Woodwind Space
The Percussion Space

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi

by David E. Smith

What is it for and what does it do? continues to be the information site for David E. Smith Publications, LLC, containing product information, company information and search materials-past issues of Lines and Spaces for example. is a general resource and marketing site for sacred instrumental music. It will be fully functional with its August 2003 debut, even though the home page has been up for a year.

As a research tool will enable you to look for nearly 5,000 sacred instrumental arrangements from more than a dozen publishers.

Areas of search can be done by title, idiom, holiday or musical type, level, writer, or publisher. Further information can be found such as writer biographical sketches, publisher operations overviews, instrumentation structures, musical samples and sound files.

Because of the amount of data involved in this endeavor, information will be continually added and/or updated. A field will be available to let you know when new items are released.

AND, just as importantly you will be able to order online all the music you need with a fully structured shopping cart. Payment by credit card is accepted and will be fully secured. You will find the advantages of speedy, availability, service and size of selection at your finger tips. it out today, you may find it as your sacred instrumental music resource for all your tomorrows! David E. Smith Publications, LLC, is pleased to announce that it is NOW a full line dealer for Lillenas Music Publishing as well as the Nazarene Publishing House and Beacon Hill Books.

Of note, are the "Instrumental SoloTrax" collections that are in high demand. These solo collections have orchestrated accompaniment on either/or cassette and CD and will be soon posted on the website as well as the site.

Along with these offerings there are many more collections for solo and ensembles, keyboard and the "Allegis" series of orchestra music These and so much, much more.

DESPUB is also a dealer for Sound Forth Publications and their excellent offering of sacred music. You can find that listed on as well.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins

On Prayer

The only lesson that the disciples asked Jesus to teach them was how to pray. And recorded in the Lord's Prayer is the model which Jesus incorporated to teach them how to have sweet communion with the Father. Let it shape your prayer life, and be the model of communion for you.

According to Jesus, by far the most important thing about praying is to keep at it. The images he uses to explain this are all rather comic, as though he thought it was rather comic to have to explain it all. He says God is like a friend you go to to borrow bread from at midnight. The friend tells you in effect to drop dead, but you go on knocking anyway until he finally gives you what you want so he can go back to bed again (Luke 11: 5-8). Or God is like a crooked judge who refuses to hear the case of a certain poor widow, presumably because he knows there's nothing much in it for him. But she keeps on hounding him until finally he hears her case just to get her out of his hair (Luke 18: 1-8). Even a stinker, Jesus says, won't give his own child a black eye when he asks for peanut butter and jelly, so how all the more will God when his children ask-(Matthew 7:9-11).

Be importunate, Jesus says- not, one assumes, because you have to beat a path to God's door before he will open it, but because until you beat a path maybe there's no way of getting to the door. “Ravish my heart,” John Donne wrote. But God will not usually ravish. He will only court- From Wishful Thinking by Frederick Buechner

It is not part of the life of a natural man to pray. We hear it said that a man will suffer in his life if he does not pray; I question it. What will suffer is the life of the Son of God in him, which is nourished not by food, but by prayer. When a man is born from above, the life of the Son of God is born in him, and he can either starve that life or nourish it. Prayer is the way the life of God is nourished. Our ordinary views of prayer are not found in the New Testament. We look upon prayer as a means of getting things for ourselves; the Bible idea of prayer is that we may get to know God himself.-From My Utmost for His Highest by Oswald Chambers

While we ordinarily first bring our own needs to God in prayer, and then think of what belongs to God and His interests, the Master reverses the order. First Thy name, Thy kingdom, Thy will; then, give us, forgive us, lead us, deliver us. The lesson is of far more importance than we think. In true worship the Father must be first, must be all. The sooner I learn to forget myself in the desire that He may be glorified, the richer will the blessing be that prayer will bring to myself. No one ever loses by what he sacrifices for the Father.- From With Christ in the School of Prayer by Andrew Murray

The prayer is that the Father's divine sovereignty should more and more fully attain its rightful place in the heart and life of fallen mankind, who otherwise are bound under the sway of powers of darkness; that instead of living in sin and rebellion against God men should be brought to live their whole life more and more under the control of God's sovereign rule. -From Commentary on the Gospel of Luke by Norval Geldenhuys

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Most instrumental conductors are aware of Charles Ives' somewhat humorous, challenging and scintillating work entitled “Variations on 'America.'”

While reading a fine new book entitled “*All the Stops” my wife called attention to a very interesting vignette which involves the late E. Power Biggs, a noted concert organist, and the Ives “Variations.”

As with most performers, Mr. Biggs was in constant search for new literature. In 1948 he wrote Charles Ives and asked if he had any organ works which might be used on his radio program.

According to Harmony Twitchell Ives, her husband was not well and asked her to answer Biggs' letter.

She wrote, “He has not composed anything for the organ for over 40 years- and apparently most of it has been mislaid or lost,” she wrote. “He can find only two- 'Variations on America' and a short prelude- photostatic copies of these will be sent to you under separate cover...P.S. Mr. Ives says the 'Variations on America' are a kind of reflection of youthful days, and the playing of the pedal variation near the end gave him 'almost as much fun as playing baseball.'”

Biggs wrote back with his thanks and told Mrs. Ives that he planned to play the 'Variations' on his radio program on July 4.

Thus did Biggs resurrect a work that would have been lost to history, “stuck in a pile of music in the barn, back of the old Ives house in Danbury, Connecticut,” as Biggs later recalled, “if I hadn't asked him...for something to play on the CBS broadcast.”

What a loss would have been suffered, albeit unknown to mankind, had Biggs not pursued this wonderfully unique work.

The band and orchestra transcriptions of “Variations” have delighted players and audiences alike on innumerable occasions for many years now, thanks to Charles Ives and E. Power Biggs.

*All the Stops, Craig R. Whitney, pp. 106, 107, 2003. Excerpted with the kind permission of the publisher, Public Affairs, 250 West 57th Street, Suite 1321, New York NY 10107.

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by Jay-Martin Pinner

With Strings Attached Some Wedding Music Dos and Don'ts for Music Directors, Wedding Directors and Brides-To-Be

Weddings and receptions should be joyful occasions with music that has special meaning for the bride and groom.

Taking good care of musicians who participate in the wedding and reception will help make the day one full of happy memories with a minimum number of bloopers to relive at the couples' first anniversary.

In order for string musicians to play their best several considerations should be expected and planned for. Having sung and played for dozens of weddings I submit the following from practical experience. (A string quartet is referred to for purposes of illustration.)

Professionals are booked well in advance. Fees should be agreed upon in advance. If close friends are providing the music the bride and groom should offer to pay the standard fee and then allow the musicians to decline the fee or lower the fee if they are so inclined. Expecting friends to provide a professional service gratis without discussion creates unnecessary strain on friendships.

After agreeing on the fee a string quartet may ask for a deposit in advance to secure the date. In return the quartet should guarantee that the music planned would be performed even if a quartet member becomes ill or has a family emergency. The balance of the fee should be paid to the quartet on site immediately following the wedding and/or reception. This responsibility should be given to the wedding director, the best man or some other “detail” person in the wedding party. It is considered bad form for the quartet members to hover around during the post wedding/reception pictures hoping that someone will remember to pay them.

The string quartet should provide a list of possible pieces contained in its repertoire, along with a form that outlines the entire wedding ceremony indicating where music usually is presented. Most musicians are happy to play requested works not in their repertoire if the music is provided for them with the appropriate instrumentation.

If arrangements need to be written specifically for the group then additional fees should be discussed. Quartet musicians should not be expected to perform from makeshift copies or read from a piano score. More generally a bride and groom might request that a quartet play several classical and sacred selections during the prelude. The group would then choose the specific pieces to provide 20-30 minutes of prelude music and any music requested for the actual ceremony.

Receptions usually last approximately 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Additional playing may be requested in advance for an additional fee. A quartet normally takes a 10-minute break each hour. Directors, in their effort to provide a beautiful setting for weddings and receptions, often place the string quartet in as small a space as possible hemmed in on every side by palm fronds, ferns and dripping candles. Give the group enough room to play comfortably.

The quartet should be placed away from passageways, stairs and railings, in a place where at least the first violinist can see the wedding party in order to properly time processionals and other music. When in doubt a wedding director should actually sit in each chair to make sure there is room enough for four living people with instruments and music stands. For receptions it is wise to physically cordon off and decorate an area for the quartet to avoid spills on instruments and knocked over music stands. The musicians' lighting should be checked under the conditions expected for the performance.

Often the lights are checked when the church sanctuary lights are up full on a bright, sunny afternoon. In reality the quartet might be playing at night with the sanctuary lights down at 40% and a spotlight on the bride and groom. Time should be provided to bring in the stand lights or at least bring up a side spot so that the quartet can read its music.

Whenever possible padded chairs are appreciated, especially for receptions! A glass of water or punch along with a small plate of munchies or fruit is a courtesy that should always be extended to musicians at receptions. One of the servers should assume the responsibility to occasionally refill musicians' empty beverage glasses throughout the reception. The musicians should also be invited to enjoy the food at the reception especially if the event takes place during the lunch or dinner hour.

Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department at Bob Jones University in Greenville, SC. In addition to his teaching and performing responsibilities he and his family are free-lance musicians providing professional services for weddings, receptions, recording sessions and corporate events.

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by Dana F. Everson

What an Arranger Can Learn From the Great Marches- Part 1

As the chorale is the most compact type of music to study for traditional harmony, the march is the most compressed, practical form for the band. Anyone desiring to write for band, brass, or woodwind ensembles should take some time to do some research and observation. Think of how each of the elements of music are used. Let's begin with FORM.

On very common march form is: Intro ||: A :||: B :|| Transition | C (“Trio section”) ||: D (“Dogfight”) | C (Grandioso):||

One might think of it as a story line: Soldiers preparing to do battle, for example.

Intro = often in unison

A = a commanding tune of 16 or 32 measures representing the soldiers

B = a contrasting tune of 16 or 32 measures representing the glorious challenge

Transition = usually a modulation to the Subdominant key; 4 measures

C = usually the most memorable tune of the piece; the calm before the storm

D = the high-tension section; the battle is on

C = in a triumphant manner...the victory is ours!

Many march composers use the first 4 or 8 measures as an “attention-grabber” to let the audience know that this is serious business! The march was designed for band, and band for the march. The introduction usually included at least a couple of measures in octaves/unisons to focus all the energy in one melodic place for a few seconds before entering the main body of the music.

Now, the A and B tunes are presented, not unlike the first and second themes in a sonata form, except that the B tune remains in the tonic key. Meanwhile, counterpoint and obbligato flourishes are decorating and adding variety to the piece as a whole. Normally, there are just three ideas occurring at a time: The Melodic line (which may be “thickened” by one or two harmony parts), the Bass/Rhythm line, and a Countermelody (or Descant).

In terms of texture and form, it is rare that one would need more than those three ideas at one time. The listener usually will gravitate to the melody, notice some of the countermelody, and tap his foot to the bass/rhythm line.

Yes, a composer/arranger may want to add a great deal of variety to the form of an arrangement that goes far beyond the traditional march, but the study of the interrelationships of parts to the whole will strengthen one's understanding of how to put together an efficient and effective piece for use in school and church writing.

I will explore other elements of the march in future articles.

Everson holds the B.M.E. degree from Michigan State University, Master's Degree in Saxophone Performance, Michigan State University and a Master of Sacred Music from Pensacola Christian College. He has over 200 published works.

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Music owes as much to Bach as religion to its founder- Robert Schumann

Conductors must give unmistakable and suggestive signals to the orchestra-
not choreography to the audience.- George Szell

I have my own particular sorrows, loves, delights; and you have yours.
But sorrow, gladness, yearning, hope, love, belong to all of us,
in all times and in all places.
Music is the only means whereby we feel
these emotions in their universality.- H.A. Overstreet

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by Phil Norris

Summer is a time to read good books and listen to great recordings, things you'd like to do during the rest of the year but never are able to get to them.

If you're looking for some good brass recordings, here are some of my favorites. I think these are some of the most spectacular recordings of brass music ever made. If you can't find these commercially, let me know, and I'll try to help you out or if you want to send me some of your favorites, I'd love to know about them if I don't already (e-mail:; phone: 651.631. 5187).

BRASS The Antiphonal Music of Gabrieli - Philadelphia Orchestra, Cleveland Orchestra and Chicago Symphony brass sections, Sony Classical CD, © 1996. This is a CD re-issue of the one-of-a-kind recordings of America's top brass players in 1968. There's even a chart to show the name and playing location of each performer. This is still the standard for brass performance.

Philip Jones Brass Ensemble Greatest Hits, Decca CD, © 2001. This is a 2-CD set of Renaissance through modern works and includes Byrd's Earle of Oxford March, the 1st Ewald Quintet, Copland's Fanfare for the Common Man, Pictures at an Exhibition, Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, Dukas' Fanfare from 'La Peri.' Need I go on? If you love brass music, this best-of collection has something for everyone!

Brass Nation by Michael Davis, Hip-Bone Music CD, © 2000. Davis pulls together some of the finest studio and symphony players in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles for this pull-out-all-the-stops album of original brass pieces by Davis. There's a new album out of his that I've not heard, but you can find out about it online:

TRUMPET Tutti's Trumpets, Tutti Camarata, Bainbridge Records, © 1983. If you like trumpet in big band, this is a vintage CD re-issue of the great LP from 1957. It has all the top L.A. studio players of the time: Pete Candoli, Conrad Gozzo, Mannie Klein, with an all-star rhythm section doing tunes like, I Can't Get Started, Trumpeter's Prayer (Gozzo is mol- to espressivo; his playing is beautiful beyond words), and Louis Armstrong (Mannie Klein does a great imitation of Armstrong on this cut). When I was in junior high, my trumpet teacher loaned me his LP copy for a week, and I believe I wore it out. I hadn't heard it since then until I got a copy two years ago.

Carmen Fantasie: Virtuoso Music for Trumpet, Sergei Nakariakov, Teldec. © 1994. On this album, Nakariakov does the Paganini Moto Perpetuo which hadn't been done double-tongued since Mendez recorded it in the 1960's. The Mendez recording had an edit; this one doesn't. Nakariakov plays steady sixteenth notes for four minutes and twenty seconds. There's also a version of Sarasate's Zigeunerweisen, a Paganini Caprice, and two Arban pieces amongst other amazing feats of technique. By the way, Nakariakov was 17 when he recorded this.

Classic Wynton, Wynton Marsalis, Sony Classical, © 1998. Wynton has his own slurred version of the Moto Perpetuo along with standard Baroque, Modern, and Classical works including movements from the Haydn and Hummel, and a couple cuts from his Carnaval album (CBS Masterworks, ©1987) with the Eastman Wind Ensemble & Hunsberger, another album I highly recommend.

HORN Dennis Brain: Richard Strauss The Two Horn Concertos and Hindemith's Horn Concerto, EMI/Angel, ©1986. Dennis Brain was one of the world's great horn soloists until a car accident ended his life in his mid-30's. These performances are superb models for all horn players. Brain also recorded the Mozart Horn Concertos No. 1-4 that's also worth having (EMI Classics, © 1997).

TROMBONE The Virtuoso Trombone, Christian Lindberg, Gammofon AS BIS, © 1984. Here's one of the world's finest trombone soloists doing the Hindemith Sonata alongside a version of Flight of the Bumblebee I heard once more on national public radio. You won't believe your ears!

Doug Yeo: Two of a Mind, Egon, © 2001, with Nick Hudson and the Williams Fairey Brass Band of England. If you like British brass band music, this is a delight. Go to Doug's website and you'll find other superb recordings of sacred and classical pieces- Doug also has a wealth of helpful information about playing trombone and making music!

TUBA Michael Lind, Play Tuba, Four Leaf Records, © 1988. Here's another truly amazing recording of virtuoso brass playing of Arban's Carnival of Venice and the Gregson Tuba Concerto, and others. You have to keep reminding yourself this is not a cornet; it's a tuba playing!


Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. He earned his DMA degree at the University of Minnesota. Phil is past president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and continues to compile and edit the CIDA Sacred List of Instrumental Music.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins

All too often a player puts the instrument in the closet after high school or college graduation and, in many cases, never takes it out again. What a shame! Also, some had wanted to play an instrument early in life but never had the opportunity. What a shame!

In the late 1980s, Roy Ernst began thinking about how music could improve the quality of life for senior adults. He thought that people would enjoy the intellectual and social stimulation of learning music in a group setting and looking forward to concerts and trips together.

At that time, there was a widespread belief that if you didn't start music as a kid, you missed your chance. Roy did not believe that and knew of research which demonstrated that senior adults could learn to play an instrument.

He talked with a music dealer friend who became a board member of the National Association of Music Merchants and then assisted in the development of a model project at the Eastman School of Music where Roy was a faculty member..

When he placed announcements of the start to newspapers he hoped for about 20 but was afraid even that number might not be realized. He was overjoyed when about 40 people came to the informational meetings and started playing. The honks and noises that are always a part of learning an instrument were taken in good humor and soon became recognizable as music. At the end of the first semester, all had met or exceeded their expectations!

Using the New Horizons Band in Rochester as a model, bands were started in many other locations in the United States. Today there are approximately 80 bands and a few orchestras as well.

At the first concert in December 1991 there were 55 band members. By May 1992 the band numbered 75. Today there are 150 in the Red Band. In addition, there is also a Green Band, a Wind Ensemble (which plays more difficult music) and a Dance Band. Roy's belief has been proven that “playing in a band is too much fun to leave to the kids.”

According to Roy, “One of the goals was to put to rest the notion that if you don't learn to play music as a child, you have missed your window of opportunity forever.” A secondary interest was learning whether playing a musical instrument in a group improved physical and mental health of seniors.

In 1997, using grants from the National Association of Music Merchants (NAMM) and the National Association of Band Instrument Manufacturers (NABIM), and a two year leave-of-absence from Eastman, Roy began travelling throughout the U.S. to start New Horizons programs.

In 2001 he retired from Eastman and returned to work on the New Horizons Music Project, again with the support of NAMM and NABIM.

Questions concerning the New Horizons program can be directed to Roy Ernst via e-mail: royernst@ There is a website which might also be useful:

(Above material used with permission of the author and publisher of A Guide to The New Horizons Band 2002, compiled and edited by Shirley Michaels, P.O. Box 1573, Cheyenne WY, 82003)

Harlow E. Hopkins is co-conductor of the New Horizons Band of Kankakee Valley and is Professor Emeritus, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois, where he continues as Adjunct Professor of Clarinet.

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by Billy Madison

Changing Drum Heads

“How do you change the heads on a drum?” That's a question I am often asked by many people. I always teach my students the proper way to change a head, but there are many who just aren't sure how it should be done. There follows an easy-to-understand description of the process.

The heads should generally be replaced at least once a year and this process works for snare drum or tom tom batter (top) heads. How to change the bottom snare drum head will follow the instructions for changing the batter head.

Step 1 - Loosen the tension on the muffler (if there is one).

Step 2 - Remove the tension rods and counter hoop from the batter head. It is a good idea to clean them with a dry rag at this time. Also, check inside the drum for loose screws and tighten them.

Step 3 - Place the new head on the drum followed by the counter hoop. Tighten the tension rods with your fingers until they make contact with the counter hoop.

Step 4 - Tighten the tensions rods with a drum key by turning them ½ turn each using the following order: 1, 8, 3, 6, 5, 4, 7, 2. There may be a different number of tension rods, but use the same concept regardless. Continue this process until you reach the desired tension on the head.

Step 5 - Take a stick and strike the head about 2 inches from each tension rod (with the snares released) and listen to the pitch. Try to match the pitch near each rod until they are all the same. This could take a while because changing the pitch of one tension rod will likely affect the pitch of the other rods slightly. Once you have reached the desired tightness and tone you are finished.

The snare head will only need to be replaced when it becomes damaged instead of yearly.

First, remove the snares and then follow the above procedures. Tune the head without the snares. It should be a little higher in pitch than the batter head. When replacing the snares put the throw-off lever in the “on” position and adjust to about half way between tight and loose. Pull the snares until they are snug against the head and then connect to the opposite side. You should then be able to adjust the tightness or looseness of the snares as desired.

Allow about a week or so for the heads to seat and then retune each head. Take the time to get the exact sound that you desire and make sure the tension of the head allows for a good rebound stroke.

Billy Madison has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas Public Schools for 16 years. He studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Conner. Madison has played percussion with the Northeast Arkansas Symphony since 1978.

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