VOL 7, NO 1, SPRING, 2005

© 2005 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
The Brass Space
Meet Dan Stockton
The Woodwind Space
The Lone Arranger
A Praying Atheist...
The Percussion Space

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi

by David E. Smith

Why Be A Publisher?
Ministry or Business?
Art or Passion? Part III

Why does music cost what it does? When considering the price of inflation music has fared pretty well compared to automobiles and other merchandise. We are fortunate that in the electronics field prices have come down. But all in all, music has held its own over the decades.

The main consideration that affects price is the cost of manufacturing followed by what the market place will bear. For the most part, Christian organizations tend to be conservative in nature with spending or don't have the means to do heavy buying in the first place. Some have unlimited resources but the former tends to have a greater influence on what can be charged for a product.

When DESPub began, a customer might ask why an individual solo cost $2.50, $3.00 or $4.00-a good stimulus for providing an answer which would be more involved than most people realize.

Here are some obvious, and not so obvious, considerations.

So-what does it take publish a solo and make it available to the buyer?

First, a composer/ar- ranger must spend time and put forth effort to write the work. Typically, rewriting and reworking the material will be required to produce the result which will satisfy the writer-at least for a while.

Next, the work will be performed and critiqued with judgments being made by the writer and other trusted musicians. It may well be that more time will then be spent refining the work in various ways.

Depending on the level of satisfaction more performances and more editing follows. Some major composers have redone complete symphonies and even produced different versions!

Submitting the work to a publisher is then appropriate. Making contacts and “jumping through procedural hoops” and spending time and money will now be required.

If the publisher's editors decide that they want to consider the piece, more time and investigation may be involved while obtaining sub-publishing contracts and the paying of royalties before going on to the next step, i.e., typesetting the music itself. Today typesetting is easier than ever before because writers can submit works in computer files and publishers have computer software for typesetting.

The publisher will then either accept the field testing of the writer to determine the acceptability of the work or do some performance testing of his own.

It is then time to proof and reexamine the accuracy of the engravings. Again, re-doing the product may be necessary.

Now it is time to manufacture the product and deal with more costs at yet another level.

Along with all the production procedures comes the necessity of marketing, advertising, giving dealers considerations, shipping and doing follow up work to make sure everything is going smoothly.

In addition to marketing there is the time involved with courtesies such as “permission to copy,” licenses and other support.

And of course, there is the necessity to deal with royalties for the writer whose creative endeavors made the work possible in the first place.

Typically, royalties are based on actual sales with a percentage going to the writer. If a piece sells well writers will soon see positive results from their efforts. If a piece is not well received, both the writer and publisher will suffer a loss of time and money.

In view of all the above, plus additional items which may not have been mentioned, what would you sell your solo for?

In the next issue we'll look at other aspects of the publishing business.

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by Phil Norris

Got Braces?

I recently saw an excellent article on playing brass instruments with braces and realized that we've never discussed that topic in Lines & Spaces®. So, here it is. What I have to say is borne out of not only that article but also personal experience and many years of teaching students who had orthodontic braces.

I had braces my junior and senior years in high school while being the lead trumpeter in my concert and jazz bands. Getting them was a tremendous shock to my mouth and psyche, and at the time there was no aid except wax, which did not work. My only resort was pain and frustration plus moments when I would simply have to stop playing. I loved playing too much to give it up for a year and a half (or so) and had to find a way to cope.

I continued to play first parts and learned to pace myself, use more air and less mouthpiece pressing, more pucker, and I learned how to push through pain and bleeding.

We sometimes hear stories like this from athletes, but it can happen with us, too. I believe that after the braces came off that it took many months for the scar tissue inside my mouth to go away. But because the mouth and lip area is so well supplied with blood, the healing from the damage of braces is relatively quick. Some players have trouble with mouth sores due to the irritation of braces. Canker sores can happen without braces, but with braces they are doubly painful. An orthodontist, doctor or pharmacist can suggest treatment to lessen the pain or severity of canker sores.

The article I read surveyed a couple products available today that are a considerable improvement over wax and toughing-it out. I'll highlight those and leave it to you to try them if you're looking for that sort of thing.

The products most recommended were Morgan Lip Bumper ( and the Jet-Tone Lip Protector (available through the Woodwind & Brasswind - ). Both consist of flexible thin plastic shields that fit over the braces and wires. The shield still creates a bit of a bump behind the upper front teeth, but if the player shifts the mouthpiece pressure to the lower lip, the feel of the upper lip is close to natural.

Another product available, but a bit less helpful is Brace Guard ( ),something you'll see advertised often in music education and brass publications. Another brand of the same type is called Brace Base ( www.northern. edu/manhartg/ ). These consist of dental impression putty that hardens quickly. The player may have to try different thicknesses of putty to find what protects while not being too bulky behind the lip. The putty material is a bit more natural feeling than the plastic shield but is also a less-dependable cover for the braces.

The other idea put forth was using Teflon pipe tape you can get at any hardware store to cover the braces, but it was difficult to keep in place and its cushion of the braces is less effective than the shield or putty. For some it may work but most it probably won't be the best choice.

One other product was mentioned in the article but was not reviewed: Brace Relief (

Here are some helpful strategies for surviving braces.

      1. Use more fullness (quantity) of blowing; think of blowing your lips away from your mouth. This should help minimize pressing the mouthpiece into the lips and causing the braces to cut into the mouth.
      2. Use more pucker formation to the embouchure. This should help cushion the lip tissue and help you grip the mouthpiece without pressing too much.
      3. Avoid extremes of range and loud volumes as much as you can.
      4. Try to keep the tone clear to your ears.
      5. Rest more often and play shorter phrases. Keep your mind on making the best musical sound and playing you can. Let the excellent product motivate you through the obstacle.
      6. If playing hurts or your mouth is bleeding, stop playing!
      7. When you get the braces off, expect several weeks to return to more “normal” playing. You made unconscious adjustments for the braces when you first got them, and now you will have to make another adjustment. Keep a focus on the ideal musical product and your playing habits will work efficiently without the braces.

Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. He earned his DMA at the University of Minnesota. Phil is past president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and continues to compile and edit the CIDA Sacred List of Instrumental Music.

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Daniel Stockton grew up in northeastern Iowa, where he attended a rural one-room school for three years. In the fourth grade the district closed all the one- room schools and bused the students to town. That year his best friend started to play trumpet in the school band. The next year his father bought him a cornet to play in the band. An hour's bus ride to school and farm chores at home did not leave much time for practice, so progress was slow. For Dan, the band room was a refuge from the negative element in the school.

In his senior year of high school, Dan's family moved to Watertown, Wisconsin, were his parents worked and taught at Maranatha Baptist Bible College. He graduated from Watertown High School the year before Maranatha started it's academy.

At Maranatha, Dan studied under Dr. Monty Budahl and caught Dr. Budahl's love for ministry, music, and mentoring. While at Maranatha, Dan was involved in band, choir and drama. Dr. Budahl wisely told Dan that the phrase, “a jack of all trades and a master of none” does make sense.

After his junior year Dan's parents moved to a different school and Dan had to begin working in order to pay for college. He married Deborah Anthony and moved to Salem, Oregon where he studied trumpet with Phil Norris at Western Baptist College.

It was at Western that Dan was led by the Lord to focus on instrumental music and become a band director. After squeezing four years into seven, Dan graduated form Western Baptist with majors in Bible, Music Education, and a year of support classes at Oregon College of Education for state teacher certification.

Dan has taught instrumental music for 25 years. He started a band program for a mission school in Costa Rica, Central America. The band's growth was based on how many instruments could be brought back from the United States each summer. After four years He moved to Vassar, Michigan and taught at Juniata Christian School where his children grew up. After twelve years and with both children in college, Dan moved to Tempe, Arizona, to revive a floundering Christian school band program. In his seven years at the school the band grew from 23 to 72 players and achieved “superior with honors” ratings.

In 2003 the Stocktons moved to Memphis, Tennessee to start a band program at Central Baptist School, and to be closer to their grandchildren.

After Dan had moved back to the “United States” he was looking for music for his band program. He spotted an advertisement for sacred instrumental music in the Instrumentalist magazine by a David E. Smith Publications. Reading the advertisement closer, he noticed that David Smith was located in Deckerville, Michigan which was only 50 miles away . The Lord had put Dan in the closest Christian School to David Smith's place. After a phone call, Dan went over to see what Dave had available. During the visit, Dan offered to do whatever he could to help make sacred instrumental music available. With the business only a few years old, Dave was not looking for any assistance.

Dan finally got his chance to help when a new music engraving program was developed. After attending an electronic engravers training program given by Rick Townsend at Freedom Farm Christian School, Dan landed his first engraving project for David E. Smith Publications.

Over fifteen years, many projects have been completed for David E. Smith Publications. The project list includes Heritage I and II, Hymns for Multiple Instruments I and II, and Hymnsembles I - IV and several band sets. If a project was difficult or too sizeable, it would be given to Dan to finish. With all of these contributions, Dan has only one arrangement published by David E. Smith Publications, a brass quartet arrangement of Brethren We Have Met To Worship.

During the past five years Dan has formed Stockton Music Services L.L.C. which publishes simple orchestrations for several different hymnals and has recently released a collection of Brass Quintets written by Dr. Monty Budahl. The orchestrations and quintet collection are available through David E. Smith Publications.

Dan lives in Memphis, Tennessee with his wife Deborah. They have two married children who live on the other side of the state. His son, Stephen, is married to Shelly and is working on his Doctorate at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. His daughter, Rachel, is married to Ronald and has three children: Brittany, Madelyn, and Ronald.

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by Carl E. Romey

A Time For Everything -

The shower was over, pajamas put on and Curtis, our son, would climb into his bed. Exhausted, after a long and frustrating day, he would lie there and talk to me. I would usually snuggle up to him and listen about his new experiences. It was 1979 and he was in school in Curitiba, Brazil. He did not speak Portuguese like everyone else in his class, but he was still learning to communicate much faster than mom and dad.

We usually read a story together and talked about what had happened that day and what he was feeling. Sometimes he told me about things at school or adventures that he and some other missionary kids got into after school.

Following the story we said prayers. Curtis always started at the top of his prayer list and worked his way to the end. The list of names had to follow in a certain sequence every night.

Then often we would sing a song. Many evenings he wanted to sing a very special song by himself. There was a period of time that he would sing, from memory and at full volume, a rather lengthy song. Being the proud father that I was, I could not help but watch and listen in amazement, as this redheaded lad would twist his lips and sing these words, “I have a song that Jesus gave me; it was sent from heaven above. There never was a sweeter melody; 'Tis a melody of love. In my heart there rings a melody, there rings a melody with heaven's harmony. In my heart there rings a melody, there rings a melody of love.”**

Our son had no idea that the author and composer, Elton Menno Roth, was born in Berne, Indiana, about sixty miles from where Curtis had been born in Auburn, Indiana. Elton M. Roth was born in 1891 and wrote this song in Texas in 1923. Yet Curtis was singing away in Brazil, South America in 1979.

The impact of what we say or write may have a much longer effect than what we ever realize. Even though Mr. Roth wrote this song under God's divine inspiration, he never knew that one day it would be sung with great gusto by a five year old in South America.

Do we really realize how much our deeds affect others? God calls his people to be a holy people. Some have confused this with a perfect people. I have never met a perfect person and doubt that I ever will. But I have met many people who are working daily to live out their lives in a holy manner that is pleasing to God.

Curtis, who certainly was not a theologian at age five, found a song with a wonderful melody that says more than he could ever have comprehended. Yet the words and melody stuck in his mind so he could sing the testimony that had been penned fifty-six years earlier.

What are we doing that will remain locked in the mind of someone else? Will it be a positive remembrance or a negative one? Will our words encourage or chastise? Will someone remember kindness and calmness or scornfulness and harshness? Have we been instructional and patient or demanding and impatient?

When a godly melody rings in our hearts, then it is not likely that discord will flow from our lips. Forgiveness produces new beginnings. It would be awe-inspiring if we would be more determined than ever to make sure that God's love is celebrated on our countenance and in our utterance. Love paints a picture of kindness - always.

**"In My Heart There Rings A Melody," by Elton M. Roth, 1924 Copyright, renewed 1951 by Hope Publishing Company, Carol Stream, IL, All rights reserved, Used by permission.

Carl E. Romey, a graduate of Olivet Nazarene University, is an ordained elder with the Church of the Nazarene. He served as a missionary to Brazil, South America, from 1979-1990. Presently he is the Assistant Pastor at the First United Methodist Church in Gainesville, Florida.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins


A friend asked recently about clarinet ligatures and said that he didn't know what to recommend to his students. Thus the idea for another "Lines and Spaces®" article was born.

For those who have never heard the word, the ligature is the clamp which holds the reed on single-reed mouthpieces.

A visit to websites revealed that there are nearly 30 (at least) Bb clarinet ligatures available today ranging in price from (list) $3.35 to $102. There are probably as many for saxophone as well.

There are four materials which are used in the manufacture of a ligature: 1. Metal; 2. Fabric, 3: Plastic or Polypropylene.

To secure the reed to the mouthpiece either one or two screws are used which are located either below the mouthpiece or above (the inverted position).

All ligature makers try to produce a clamp which will permit the reed to vibrate as freely as possible but still be held securely on the mouthpiece.

The contact points (or surfaces) which hold the reed on the mouthpiece are reduced as much as possible. If the vibration of the reed is squelched or restricted the tone will be somewhat impaired. However, it is likely that only an advanced player will be tonally-sensitive enough notice any difference.

Your writer played a Harrison ligature (two screws) for several years. It is now called the “Grand Concert Select H Ligature.” It does not (to me) have the typical brightness of most metal ligatures. Both silver and gold plating are available with gold being my preference. It lists for $49.50.

Prior to Harrison, the Luyben ligature was preferred-two screws. It is made of plastic and has four small posts which contact the reed and hold it in place.

For the last four years the Robert Vinson ligature (plastic-one screw) has been my ligature of choice. Mr. Vinson lives in Quincy, Illinois, and has been producing ligatures for several years. It is relatively inexpensive (list $17.00) and holds the reed securely in place.

Originally, of course, reeds were held on the mouthpiece with string. It was time-consuming to unwrap and wrap the string each time one wished to adjust the position of the reed and could not be repositioned quickly during a concert.

There is at least one string ligature available today, made by James Pyne, which lists for $49.00.

It is made of hand-woven string but is placed on the mouthpiece similarly to all the other ligatures.

Because ligatures come in several configurations, the mouthpiece cap which fits one setup will not necessarily fit another. In a number of instances, the price includes a mouthpiece cap as well as the ligature.

In conclusion, it is best for the young player to use the ligature which comes with the instrument for several years. If one is broken or badly bent out of shape it's easy enough to replace it for less than $5.00.

If the player is determined to try a different brand there are many others available. Try to steer her/him toward a ligature which features a minimal amount of contact with the reed.

Harlow E. Hopkins is Professor of Music, Emeritus, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois, and continues there as Adjunct Professor of Clarinet. He holds the D.Mus. from Indiana University, Bloomington.

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by Dana F. Everson

101 TIPS FOR BETTER MUSICALITY (School, Private Study, and Church Settings) Compiled by Dana F. Everson

PREPARATION 1) Pray for wisdom in choosing music that will reflect the character of the Lord, inspire and educate the players, and uplift the listeners.
2) Plan backwards from the concert or service; set reasonable goals for your group.
3) Keep a file of music titles for the near and distant future; get on the mailing lists for receiving review copies of music.
4) Attend as many live performances as possible; evaluate (to yourself) the strengths of the performances/choices of music.
5) Attend music workshops
6) Develop friendships with other like-minded musicians in your area; share ideas and needs.
7) KNOW YOUR PLAYERS; their spiritual AND musical strengths. Seek to help them develop Christlike character- this should be a primary goal. (see scripture references verses at the end of each section for suggestions)
8) Get recordings of the best "classical" sounds of each instrument or voice, e.g., Saxophone--Donald Sinta; Piano--Vladimir Horowitz. These become your "inner ear" standards. Get recordings of the best sacred players. These will remind you of the wide range of expression possible with hymn playing.
As you are able, build your music reference library around the very best books and resources possible. For example, several of the TIPS in this list were based on ideas from Instrumental Handbook, by Harold Pottenger, Beacon Hill Music. Other recommended resources (for rehearsal techniques, not necessarily for philosophy of education or philosophy of music): Choral Techniques, Gordon Lamb
ASBDA Curriculum Guide Teaching the High School Band, H.A. VanderCook
Instrumental Music Pedagogy, Daniel Kohut
The Teaching of Instrumental Music, Richard Colwell
The Band Director's Survival Guide, Janzen
Handbook for Teachers of Band and Orchestra Instruments, MSBOA
How to Teach Piano Successfully, Bastien

11) PREPARE YOUR SCORES as a director OR as a performer. Ask:
-Where is the melody at all times?
-Where is the major musical peak/climax of the music?
-What words (in vocal, or instrumental arrangements of vocal) are the key words?
-What are the probable strengths/weaknesses of my group/accompanist;
which will need reinforcement? -What is the intention of the composer/arranger?
-Where are the secondary/supportive parts?
-Generally, how does the harmony portray or support the melody?
-What is the appropriate tempo?
-What is the texture throughout the piece? Does it change?

12) Mentally conduct the music looking for problems in cutoffs and cues.

13) Find the best writers and you will generally find the best music.

14) There is no substitute for an annual (or more often) trip to a large music dealer (such as Malecki or Pepper) to search through their music files.

15) Plan a yearly schedule of performances (school) with balance and variety in mind; don't forget to make friends with the coach and the custodian.

For those final weeks of school, when all concerts are over except perhaps graduation ceremonies, you might use this time for...

16) ... teaching music appreciation. The Music Masters CDs contain excellent narratives and musical excerpts of great Baroque, Classical, and Romantic composers. Available from GOD'S WORLD BOOK CLUB, P.O. Box 2330, Asheville, N.C. 28802.

17) ...elementary conducting. You can easily design your own class and have each student briefly conduct the rest of the group or a recording.

18) ... review of the elements of music: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, MELODY, HARMONY, FORM, COLOR, RHYTHM, and PURPOSE. (For additional ideas see, The Listener Card, by Dana Everson)

19) ... show several of the Kids' Classics series. The best is Beethoven Lives Upstairs.

20) Build your music library around the standards, even if you don't yet have a complete instrumentation or full choir.

21) When planning concerts, try doing 3/5ths of your music/concert time during the first half.

22) Do plenty of marches with your bands. Every basic element of music in condensed form can be taught through the concert march.

23) Include a quartet or trio in your large ensemble concerts.

24) Consider spotlighting a senior at your year-end concert.

25) Consider using upper classmen to coach younger players. (Use discretion) This might also be a great time for piano duets.

26) The less non-musical tasks to be done during rehearsal, the better. All equipment should have a place and be in its place before rehearsals/ performances.

27) Teach your students/church musicians that there is a difference between ENTERTAINMENT and MINISTRY. All performances by a Christian should minister to the listeners in some way. Education, Edification, and Encouragement should be major objectives. This is not to rule out the novelty or fun pieces in a school concert setting, for example, but only to say that the ultimate purpose should always be considered and taught.

28) When planning musical selections, consider the importance of variety, endurance of the singers/players, and the goals of the performance.

29) Plan for more than simply the next performance; have long range goals, including goals of more than a year in mind.

30) Take lessons, or at least get some coaching on instruments/voices whenever possible.

31) Develop (write out) your personal philosophy of music education.

32) Develop your file of music philosophy notes.

33) Review guidelines/philosophy for competition music early in the year. Don't wait till just before the music submissions deadlines.

34) Three rules for classroom control:
a) Have a few rules and but stick with them and enforce them. (People tend to follow through on what you INSPECT, not necessarily what you EXPECT.)
b) They must respect you first; they may learn to love you later.
c) Consistency of routine will help.

35) At some point in a school year, young/intermediate players should listen to The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, by Benjamin Britten.

36) Scriptures to consider when PREPARING:
Wisdom needed-James 1:5; Prov. 9:10; 24:6
Cautiousness-Prov. 19:2
Commitment-Ro. 12:1
Confidence-He. 10:35; 13:6
Consecration-Josh. 14:8
Creativity-Ro. 12:2
Decisiveness-James 1:6
Discernment-Heb. 5:14
Faithfulness-I Cor. 4:2
Flexibility-Philippians 4:12
Integrity-Acts 6:3
Knowledge-Prov. 8:10
Orderliness-I Cor. 14:40
Responsibility-Ro. 14:12
Resourcefulness-Luke 16:10
Sensitivity-Ro. 12:15

Dana F. Everson holds the BME and Master's in Saxophone Performance degrees from Michigan State University, and a Master of Sacred Music from Pensacola Christian College. He has over 100 published works.

(Editor's Note: The 101 Tips were the basis of a workshop given by Mr. Everson. They are printed here with the hope that they will be beneficial to our readers. The Tips will be continued in future issues.)

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An atheist was taking a walk through the woods.

What majestic trees!  What powerful rivers!  What beautiful animals!" he said to himself. 

As he was walking alongside the river he heard a rustling in the bushes behind him. He turned to look.  He saw a 7 foot grizzly charge towards him.

He ran as fast as he could up the path. He looked over his shoulder and saw that the bear was closing in on him. He looked over his shoulder again, and the bear was even closer.

He tripped and fell on the ground.

He rolled over to pick himself up but saw the bear right on top of him, reaching for him with his left paw and raising his right paw to strike at him.

At that instant the Atheist cried out, "Oh my God!"

Time stopped.  The bear froze.  The forest was silent.  As a bright light shone upon the man, a voice came out of the sky, "You deny my existence for all of these years, teach others I don't exist, and even credit creation to a cosmic accident.  And now you expect me to help you out of this predicament?  Am I to count you as a believer?"

The atheist looked directly into the light, "It would be hypocritical of me to suddenly ask You to treat me as a Christian now, but perhaps could you make the BEAR a Christian?"

"Very well," said the voice. The light went out.  The sounds of the forest resumed.

  And then the bear dropped his right paw, brought both paws together and bowed his head and spoke, "Lord, bless this food, which I am about to receive from thy bounty through Christ our Lord, Amen."

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by Billy Madison

Billy Madison has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas Public Schools for 18 years. He holds both the BME in Instrumental Music and the MM in Music Theory and Composition from Arkansas State University. He studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Connor. Madison has played percussion with the Northeast Arkansas Symphony since 1978.

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