VOL 7, NO 4, WINTER, 2005-06

© 2005 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
The Brass Space
The Lone Arranger's Space
The Woodwind Space
The Percussion Space
The String Space

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi

by David E. Smith

DESPUB Catalogs

Over the past few months David E. Smith Publications, LLC has sent out tens of thousands of survey post cards to update its database information as well as establish more succinctly the preferences of our patrons.

As we compile this data we will know better the cataloging formats patrons want, such as print, media, or web browsing. Also, it helps us determine what specialty items and services that will assist them in their product and service decision-making.

The new print catalog for 2005-2006 is now out and a departure from previous formats will be immediately noticed. However, the catalog is still set up by company and then by orchestrated order within the company. That means if you are looking for certain instrumentation it will be located in several places because each company may provide such a genre (i.e. flute solos, trumpet trios etc.) On the other hand, if a patron has a preference to a particular company or writer, they do not have to wade through a particular genre to decipher where a piece by a particular writer might be. This 60-page document doesn't offer a lot of marginal information due to the thousands of items contained in it. The Table of Contents will contain a matrix listing to assist in the location of desired items.

A second option for viewing catalog listings is on a CD format. The CD contains four notable formats. The catalog in .pdf format is roughly the same as the print catalog. With time, this document will contain complimentary bookmarks and links to facilitate navigation in the computer medium.

There are database and spreadsheet file formats where the patron can load in to their own computer programs and design their own search tools and compile data in ways to obtain information that best suits personal, particular needs or institutional programs.

The CD is marked with a version number that corresponds to the year and month it was produced helping the patron to determine if they have the latest version or not to assist in upgrades. (Of note, our websites permit down-loads of these files as well.) Thirdly, an Appendix file in a .pdf format contains cursory information on the items in the DESPUB publications that assist the patron with product details such as keys, meters duration, form, thematic material as well as additional comments and considerations.

Fourthly, sample sound files are contained to assist in the musical performance of certain products to give the patron a better comprehension of musical context.

Both and have had some transformations recently. For one thing, has had a face-lift on its home page. Additionally, there are new dealer listings and new product information. Check "What's New" often for the latest of what DESPUB has to offer. has added new detail information to assist navigating the web site. For the latest on what DESPUB has to offer check the site for new releases and updated information. The "Search The Catalog" is a marvelous tool for locating specific pieces of literature or getting ideas for programming.

Both sites have sound clips to assist in music selection by giving the patron a chance of hearing literature before purchasing.

There are many new plans that will unfold in the coming months and these are planned to be addressed in the next issue of "Lines and Spaces®."

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“When God wants something great done in the world, He doesn't dispatch a legion of avenging angels; neither does He call forth a whirlwind, nor ignite the fuse of volcanic fireworks; no commandeering of troops into battle nor discharging of zealous crusaders to holy causes; He does not orchestrate the burst and boom of thunder nor display his fiery arrows' majesty across the sky to bring His purpose. When God wants something great done in the world, He sends a baby, and then He waits.”

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by Phil Norris

Some Benefits of Mouthpiece Buzzing

Well-known performer-teachers like Arnold Jacobs, M. Dee Stewart, James Thompson, David Hickman, and Philip Farkas recommend mouthpiece buzzing as a useful tool to better performance. Others think it of little or no use. Still others advocate extensive buzzing. Whatever the view, I believe there are some important benefits from a limited amount of mouthpiece buzzing.

To begin, I want to distinguish between lip buzzing and mouthpiece buzzing. Lip buzzing makes no use of the mouthpiece. Because lip buzzing is a very strenuous action, I don't recommend it for developing players; lip buzzing will quickly tire the lips. It may be helpful in building strength in players with developed embouchures, but only then in very small doses. As Herbert L. Clarke said, “As with medicine, a small amount cures, too much kills.” Using the mouthpiece or an embouchure visualizer to produce the buzz is less strenuous, easier for pitch control, and more like actual playing than lip buzzing.

By far the greatest benefit of mouthpiece buzzing is connecting the mental image of the desired sound to the mouth in producing that sound. Brass playing is very much like singing in this respect: the note buzzed is best motivated by the mental image of the pitch, dynamics, timbre, etc., conceived in the thoughts of the musician. This highlights the important role singing has in brass playing. The more clearly held the musical idea in the mind, the more accurate the realization of that idea on the instrument. M. Dee Stewart at Indiana University says that often when checked on the mouthpiece alone, one will find that pitch control is not very accurate--and it can't be much better on the horn. Philip Farkas adds, "If you can't play it on the mouthpiece, you can't play it on the instrument."

Another benefit of mouthpiece buzzing is that it seems to improve basic tonal color. It also helps eliminate overshoots and "scoops" that will become obvious when buzzing passages on the mouthpiece.

Mouthpiece buzzing can be used to help reduce or minimize excessive pressure on the mouth by the mouthpiece, especially during the early part of a warm-up. A player may have a habit of pressing too hard on the lips with the instrument in hand but will use only the pressure necessary with the mouthpiece alone. With the mouthpiece, it's nearly impossible to use excessive pressure. So if this is a concern for a player, transferring the mouthpiece-alone approach to the playing situation may be a way to deal with excessive mouthpiece pressing.

The main critique of mouthpiece buzzing is that the actual buzz when playing is different than the buzz with the mouthpiece alone, particularly the higher the pitches played/buzzed. This is true, but the mental connection mouthpiece buzzing makes more than offsets this minor discrepancy.

It's important to say that when buzzing the mouthpiece alone, there SHOULD be a little airiness to the mouthpiece sound. Don't try to make a pure buzz with no sound of air. To do this leads the player to create excessive tensions in the lips that are not wanted in playing the instrument. Blow freely and fully into the mouthpiece as you buzz. There should be a certain amount, but not too much, of air in the mouthpiece sound.

Mouthpiece buzzing should be a very small amount of the warm-up or practice time, probably under 2-3 minutes in general. Occasionally a practice session may involve more than this if its use serves a purpose in improving the playing in some way.

Mouthpiece buzzing is a relaxing way to warm-up. It addresses the two main goals of warm-up: embouchure relaxation and mental focus. Simple quiet, relaxed sirens are good to relax and flex the lips. As a warm-up, Dale Clevenger, principal horn of the Chicago Symphony, will bathe his mouth in very warm water and then buzz some simple tones or melodies on the mouthpiece. I've also buzzed the mouthpiece while driving in the car as both a warm-up for a playing engagement or as an opportunity to “practice” when practice time is hard to find. A side note here: if you drive a stick shift, and have city, stop-and-go traffic, mouthpiece buzzing can be quite a challenge!

Of course, mouthpiece buzzing need not be limited to the warm-up. One very important tool in practice is to try to gain the same ease of playing with the instrument that the player finds in buzzing the mouthpiece alone. Play a challenging passage on the mouthpiece a few times and then transfer that same approach with the instrument. The player may have to focus on the lip buzz AT the mouthpiece for the transfer of the mouthpiece buzz to work. Buzzing is a good tool to help to set the embouchure mechanics correctly right from the start.

Intonation is improved with mouthpiece buzzing, particularly if buzzed with an existing source (like a piano or another instrument) or a tuner. Playing duets on mouthpieces alone is another good practice; it's the next best thing to singing. Better yet, sing the passage, then buzz it, then play it.

Tone quality seems to improve with a small amount of mouthpiece buzzing. This is probably because of the focus of pitch and the efficiency with which mouthpiece buzzing motivates the body to play (i.e. using more of the optimum amount of effort, not too much nor too little, to produce the sound). When this optimum physical effort occurs, tensions are minimized, and best tone for the player's level of development occurs.

There are a couple devices on the market that are helpful in mouthpiece buzzing. The B.E.R.P. (Buzz Extension Resistance Piece), developed by Mario Guaneri of the L.A. Philharmonic, has been around since 1986. The B.E.R.P. is attached to the receiver and allows the player to “play” (i.e. finger or slide) while buzzing. Then the player can immediately move the mouthpiece back onto the instrument for immediate transfer of the buzz into the instrument. I first experienced the B.E.R.P. with Mr. Cichowicz in a lesson with amazing immediate results. There is another device called the Buzz Aid that does not attach to the instrument.

James Thompson, trumpet professor at Eastman has produced some books/CDs on using mouthpiece buzzing as an integrated technique for playing (The Buzzing Book - Edition BIM Publications, 1995, These materials may be helpful but will probably lose their appeal quickly. So, I suggest using the mouthpiece along with the warm-up as well as in trouble-shooting difficult passages

Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. He earned his DMA at the University of Minnesota. Phil is past president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and is editor of the CIDA Sacred List of Instrumental Music.

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by Phil Norris

The devotional book, Mastery, has been my source of daily inspiration for the past year. It was written by the late E. Stanley Jones, who spent most of his adult life as a missionary to India. The book was published in 1955 by Abingdon Press, Nashville.

Of particular interest were the ten masteries which were intro-duced into the individual and society by the coming of the Holy Spirit.

He states that these masteries “have not been read into the ac-count-they are inherently there and very much more besides. And they have not expended them-selves-they are still at work lea-vening society.”

To the question, How does one receive the Holy Spirit?, he re-sponds, “This is the most important question that can be asked in re-ligion,” and proceeds to outline the steps. Those contained in the Fall Issue of Lines and Spaces were:

“First, the end purpose of God's redemption is to give you the Holy Spirit. “Second, the Holy Spirit is primarily a believer's gift.” “Third, having come so far along in redeeming you, will He now pull back and hesitate or refuse to give you the crowning gift - the gift of the Holy Spirit? “Fourth, there are no blocks, on God's side; they are all on our side.” “Fifth, the biggest block is a lack of self-surrender.

Here is the conclusion of Jones' thoughts , “Sixth, having come so far along with God, shall I pull back and spoil it all by refusing to give that last thing, myself! No, I do give that last thing, myself!”

Jones states that most Christians are canceled out because they do not give their all...they give, but they don't give up. Because he gave His all, we should we should be sensible and give our all! It's not a sacrifice to give but rather to withhold, for then we are sacrificing spiritual joy, spiritual effectiveness and, in truth, our very self. Only as we lose our lives can we find them.

“Seventh, and since I 'receive the promise of the Spirit through faith,” I now take this gift of God by faith.'”

“Faith is not a talisman that brings certain things because of the faith,” he says, rather, “Faith is an attitude toward God which makes it possible for God to work.” Faith is simply co-operating with God…”Faith, by endorsing God's promises, cashes in on them.”

“Eighth, I will act as if He were there. He will reveal Himself in His own way.” “Faith is acting as if it were done and launching out upon it as a working hypothesis.” God's practice is to give the highest and gives of Himself when he gives the Holy Spirit.

The giving will take place according to HIS will. To Jones it came like gentle waves of refining Fire, cleansing and filling his very being. To the writer it came as a gentle revelation that I had been cleansed COMPLETELY on the inside-it was a revelation which was as real as anything I've ever experienced.

“Ninth, I will not look at myself, nor will I look around at others; I will look at Jesus-and thank Him.”

At this point Jones states very simply, “If you look at yourself, you'll be discouraged; if you look around, you'll be distracted; if you look at Jesus, you'll have peace and quiet possession.” It's true!!

“Tenth, I will stop seeking and begin to praise Him for what He has given and will give.”

Our attitudes are all-important in life. A “seeking” attitude can be tense and anxious claims Jones, but a “praising” attitude is relaxed and receptive. A praising attitude doesn't claim to have everything-it says “I'm on the way.” It says, thank you Lord for filling within with your Holy Spirit; use me because you possess me.

A prayer concludes Jones' devotional thoughts: “O Divine Spirit … My heart is Thy home forever. We will work life out together-my willingness, Thy power. What an adventure! Amen.”

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by Dana F. Everson

In the Footsteps of an Arranger

Arranging is a creative craft. If we were to look intently for a few moments at the process which an arranger typically follows, we might have a new appreciation for this craft. But there is more than meets the ear here. The arranger has a great responsibility to form a work that is at once fresh and yet maintains the mood and dignity of the original song. Realizing that each is an individual, and each will have his or her own unique touch, yet there is a fairly standard 3-step procedure:

This involves looking through song collections, listening constantly, and experimenting with textures, ranges, accompaniments at the keyboard until some special configuration becomes a solid mass of musical seed. The tiniest seed has life within it. It contains all that is needed to grow a huge tree if given water and sunlight for stimulation.

The resulting fruit should also have seeds within it. A completed arrange-ment of sacred music ought to produce a sort of fruit of its own; it ought to help sustain the spiritual life of believers. (Not as a substitute for the Word of God, but as an expression of the character of God).

A musical seed has all the potential of a large work; but it must be stimulated and shaped by the sunlight of inspiration and the water of perspiration. Very few arrangements just roll from the writer's head. Even fewer come easily from the heart. But if he is constantly practicing his craft, if she is open to fair criticism and suggestions for improvement, then there is the nurturing of musical growth that is absolutely necessary for the production of a fresh arrangement. But it must all start with a wise choice of melody.

I often urge my piano students to examine the words of the hymns they are playing and meditate upon them for several days during their quiet time, especially when they are working out their own arrange-ments. Without a deep personal involvement an arrangement can be very clever, very technically correct, and even emotionally exciting. But without a spiritual connection between the music and the arranger, it will have far less impact on the listener.

What the arranger must do is treat each hymn as a sort of sermonette. Each selection has a message, a mood, and a ministry potential. Musical cleverness is no substitute for humble, purposeful searching for just the right choices of music to arrange. Someone has said; "Preaching that comes from the mind reaches a mind, preaching from the heart reaches a heart, preaching from the life reaches a life." Similarly, this should be the goal of all sacred musicians: to help others connect with the Lord through uplifting psalms, hymns and spiritual songs.

During this phase the arranger holds up the tune to the light, turns it over and around, then walks around it to see its many facets and possibilities. This is a challenging step in that the basic mood and intent of the music should not be destroyed or misrepresented by how it is varied and developed. In other words, whatever variations or develop- ments are presented, they should match the lyrics and the spirit of the original hymn. I might be able to produce a very technical and "flashy" set of variations with double-tonguing and very high, powerful trumpet lines, but surely this approach would be inappropriate for the song SOFTLY AND TENDERLY! In like manner, a slow, minor-mode for JOY TO THE WORLD would probably evoke more disdain than jubilation from the listener. No, the listeners' emotions are not my PRIME target, but I certainly don't want to violate the motivation behind the song.

3) JUDGING THE RESULTS Once the arranger has made a careful and personally meaningful choice, (Step 1) and then appropriately fashioned an introduction, counter-melodies, transitions, modulations, expression changes, and a fitting ending, (Step 2) the question must be asked: "Has the purpose of my arrangement been met?"

Arranging with a purpose means that a goal has been in mind all along-one of striking the heart, mind, and spirit of the performer and the listeners. It is this communication of some aspect of spiritual truth and experience from the heart of the arranger to the hearts of the others that is the whole motivation of arranging. Nothing encourages me more than to- hear from someone who has played one of my arrangements in a church service say: "This hymn arrangement stirs me up to greater hope in the Lord!” or... "this hymn arrangement was a great encouragement to several of our folks who are going through some deep waters right now," or..."My pastor was moved by this arrangement." It is not unlike the people who came away from one church saying: "Wow! What a preacher!" (And it IS wonderful to have great preaching!) But greater than this was the comment by others who left a church service saying: "Wow! What a great God we have!"

Shouldn't the musician's desire be similar to that of the preacher? The arranger is dealing with music--a powerful force. HOW he or she handles it can make a great difference in preparing a congregation to hear a sermon. It is a serious task, but when done well brings many rewards and blessings. (This article is reprinted with the permission of the author from the Vol. 2, No. 3, issue of Lines and Spaces.)

Dana Everson has over 125 published sacred instrumental arrangements with David E. Smith Publications. Everson has been teaching at Northland Bible College in Wisconsin since 1999. He holds the BME, MM and Masters in Sacred Music degrees. He has arranged for the Michigan State University marching and concert bands and spent a summer as a performer in the Disneyland All-American Band.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins

The following information has been provided by Theresa O'Hare, a doctoral candidate in flute performance at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.

On Playing the Flute by Johann Joachim Quantz, Second Editon, $24.95
The Classic of Baroque Music Instruction was translated, with notes and an introduction, by Edward R. Reilly

On Playing the Flute, first published in both German and French editions in 1752, has long been recognized as one of the most significant and in-depth treatises on eighteenth-century musical thought, performance practice, and style.

This classic text of Baroque music instruction goes far beyond an introduction to flute methods by offering a comprehensive program of studies that is equally applicable to other instruments and singers.

On Playing the Flute vividly conveys the constancy of musical life over time and remains a valuable guide for contemporary musicians. Soft cover, 412 pages.

The Simple Flute by Michael Debost, $40.00
Drawing from his highly praised French work, Une simple flute, distinguished flutist and teacher Michel Debost has compiled a useful and imaginative introduction to playing the flute. This alphabetically arranged compendium of advice and insight covers essential topics such as breathing, articulation, and tone, but also explores "jawboning," "finger phrasing," "the little devils," and other quirky and vexing aspects of flute playing.

Full of practical advice on technique and axioms that lend moral support during tough practice sessions, The Simple Flute will be a welcome addition to any serious or novice flutist's library.

In addition, the book includes original exercises such as "Debost's Scale Game," making it an excellent resource for flute teachers. Debost concludes each essay with "In a nutshell" and "Please refer to" boxes that make the book easy to browse, dog-ear, and return to again and again. Offering concise, common-sense solutions for flutists of all levels, this book is an ideal reference guide on flute performance.

The Other Flute, by Robert Dick, $39.95
This work is regarded as the definitive reference work for flutists and composers. It contains a comprehensive presentation of the flute's sonic possibilities. Included are: multiphonics, alternate fingerings, quarter-tones and smaller microtones, natural harmonics, glissandi, whisper tones, percussive sonorities, jet whistles, a discussion of techniques for piccolo, alto and bass flutes, and more.

Guide to Flute Teaching by Mary Louise Poor, $5.95
Mary Louise Poor's Guide is an efficient way for band directors, doublers, and flute teachers to find information about flute fundamentals. Poor provides brief but informative descriptions of:

- Flute assembly and maintenance
- Embouchure and body position
- Articulation
- Choosing the proper flute
She also includes helpful lists of etudes and methods in progressive order, various studies, and solo and duet collections.

Flute by James Galway
This is my favorite, largely because it is pretty amusing.

A Handbook; Literature for the Flute by James Pellerite

Probably one of the best sources for flute literature available today.

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by Billy Madison

Four Mallet Grip Dexterity Exercise

The development of four-mallet technique for keyboard percussion instruments can be frustrating at first. Many players have difficulty controlling interval changes because of the constant adjustment required in the grip. The following exercise will help facilitate the necessary muscle development required for the intervals of a unison through an octave. At first the inside mallet remains stationary while the outside mallet moves and then the outside mallet remains stationary while the inside mallet moves. Start by playing the exercise slowly and gradually increase the tempo. Although only three keys are written out, the exercise may be played in every key as each key will present different challenges.

Play first with the two mallets in the right hand and then with the two mallets in the left hand.

This exercise can be continued in all keys and at different octaves to learn to adjust to the various bar sizes.

Billy Madison has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas Public Schools for 18 years. He holds both the BME in Instrumental Music and the MM in Music Theory and Composition from Arkansas State University. He studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Connor. Madison has played percussion with the Northeast Arkansas Symphony since 1978.

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by Jay-Martin Pinner

Clarifying String Bowing Terms & Technique Part 2 - Off-the-String Bowings & Specialized Bowings

In this column on string bowings we will take a look at off-the-string bowings and specialized bowings in an effort to help clarify terminology and technique.

Off-the-String Bowings
Spiccato or bouncing bow are general terms that describe bow movement as the bow hair and stick strike the string producing a sound that is interrupted by the bow leaving and then returning to the string with a rebound. These two terms are used interchangeably. Bouncing bows may be performed at various speeds. The speed of the passage will usually determine the type of spiccato bowing a player or conductor will choose.

Brushed bowing is neither completely off the string nor completely on the string. The player provides a lift for each bow change, each bow change clears the string, but the bow movement is more lateral than vertical. Brushed bowing gives refined clarity to passage work and can be performed at a variety of tempi making the bowing one of the most used in the performance of string repertoire. Mozart and Haydn particularly benefit when appropriate passages are played with the brushed stroke. This bowing achieves an elegant balance when a high vertical bounce or an on-the-string bowing is out of place.

Sautillé bowing is the fastest bouncing bow performed with alternating down bows and up bows. Frequently used in virtuosic bravura solos, this bowing also shows up in orchestral literature. Sautillé is performed in the middle of the bow with the striking of the string controlled by the bow wrist and fingers.

Ricochet bowing is performed by dropping the bow on the string for a prescribed number of bounces, all in a down-bow direction. The up-bow is then used for a quick retrieval. The bow may be dropped for two bouncing bows followed by a retrieval as in the William Tell Overture, or the bow may be dropped for three, four or more bounces before a retrieval. This bowing is performed when the tempo is too fast to allow for individual bouncing bows and where sautillé bowing is not possible.

Staccato volante or flying staccato is performed dropping the bow and letting it rebound continuously in an up-bow direction. It is most often called for in virtuosic bravura solo pieces and only occasionally in orchestra repertoire.

Chopped bowing is a heavy bouncing bow indicated by accents and/or dots in a passage marked forte or louder. It is performed at the frog of the bow often with repeated down bows in quick succession.

Specialized Bowings
Sul ponticello describes bowing next to the bridge for a wiry mysterioso quality. It can be played at any dynamic and can be combined with free tremelo for added effect. It is abbreviated sul pont.

Sul tasto refers to bowing over the fingerboard for a light airy quality, usually in soft passages.

Col legno literally means to play with the wood stick part of the bow rather than the hair. It produces a percussive effect. Players prefer to use less expensive bows for repertoire that calls for this effect as playing on the wood scratches and damages bows. This bowing can be combined with a ricochet bowing as in Gustav Holst's The Planets.

Modo ordinario literally means in the ordinary way. The term indicates a return to normal bowing after playing with a specialized bowing. It is abbreviated modo ord.

Staggered bowing is a technique in which string players change bows at different times on held pitches for a continuous sustained sound. Staggered bowing is indicated with down-bow and up-bow symbols put in parentheses. Stand partners throughout each section agree to change bows at different times.

Punta d'arco literally means at the point of the bow. Passages so marked should be performed at the tip of the bow.

Free bowing is bowing that is not uniform within a section or sections of string players.

Unified bowing is bowing within a string section or sections that is worked out in advance by the principal players in consultation with each other and the conductor.

For a more in-depth look at string bowings consult the bowing chart in The Modern Conductor, by Elizabeth A.H. Green. American String Teachers Association with the National School Orchestra Association publishes The ASTA Dictionary of Bowing Terms, a comprehensive reference book.

Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department and Conductor of the University Symphony Orchestra at Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina.

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