NEWSLETTER of DAVID E. SMITH PUBLICATIONS, LLC
VOL 6, NO. 1, SPRING, 2004
© 2004 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.
Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
The Percussion Space
The Brass Space
Meet Billy Madison
The String Space
The Woodwind Space
The Lone Arranger
THE PUBLISHER'S SPACE
Recently many additional dealers have been added to our dealer list on www.despub.com. We would encourage you to go on that website and then select the "Dealer List." You may have one right around the corner from you. CHECK WITH YOUR DEALER for our publication companies-"DESPUB," "Majestic Music Publications," and "Psalm 150", as well as our distributions of "Washington Music Ministries," "River Song Productions," "Ken Bauer Publications," "Light Of The World Music," and "The Salvation Army."
by David E. Smith
If you wish to search the thousands of literature possibilities be sure to check our sister site: www.churchmusic.biz. Both web sites will give you an up-to-date listing of the latest available publications.
DESPUB is presently working with J.W. Pepper, Inc. and its new e-print service. You can purchase and download music via the Pepper website. DESPUB-related trade names and distributions will be added to this site on a regular basis. You are given the opportunity to peruse the music on line before you make your purchase.
Some time ago the DESPUB websites began to show examples and provide listening to arrangements using the Finale Reader software. Unfortunately, there have been difficulties in this approach which have forced its curtailment.
However, we are working on two new formats to replace this system-including mp3 and PDF files. Check www.despub. com frequently in the "What's New" menu item to see where we are in this project. Similar information will be posted in the "View Catalog" menu as well.
One way to see if these offerings are available is to spot the link icons that will be associated with the product listing.
Another DESPUB project relates to the release of arrangements using the "Smart Music" technology. As soon as these files are "double checked" for accuracy and format they will be made available. Again, check www.despub.com in the "What's New" menu for availability and price.
DESPUB is pleased to announce the release of its newest arrangement-Patriotic Medley-by its newest writer, Faye Lopez. This is a medley built around the songs...
The piece employs some nice harmonic shifts and motivic devices. The arrangement is published for trumpet, alto sax and trombone. It's ready for your upcoming Memorial Day, Fourth Of July and other services and events that may need such an arrangement.
- God Of Our Fathers,
- My County 'Tis Of Thee, and
- Battle Hymn of The Republic.
Another new available item is an accompaniment CD of the Duets Based on Hymnbook Harmonies by Douglas Smith. This tool is great for practice, or performance when keyboard accompaniment is unavailable. They are presented in a pipe organ idiom.
There are dozens of other new arrangements about to be released. They are already included in the print catalog and will soon be posted in www.despub.com in red script, and in www.churchmusic.biz in the "New Releases" section.
DESPUB continues to publish thousands of quality sacred instrumental arrangements in its efforts to serve the Christian community throughout the world.
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THE PERCUSSION SPACE
by Billy Madison
Timpani Basics 101
The timpani are an essential part of any percussion section. There are usually sets of four with the most common sizes being 23”, 25”, 28”, and 30”. Of course, other sizes are available and any number of drums may be used, most commonly from 2 to 5. If only two drums are used the most common sizes are the 25” and 28”.
Timpani tuning requires the development of a good ear for pitch. One may use a pitch pipe for reference or a tuning fork (A=440) or whatever instrument is available. Interval recognition is absolutely necessary and a lot of time should be spent developing it by listening to and singing all of the various intervals.
To tune the drums begin with the drum at its lowest pitch and strike the drum once softly and raise the pitch until the correct one is found. Instead of striking the drum one may also press the head with the middle finger and then “flick” the finger toward the body quickly producing a tone.
The proper striking area on the timpani is normally about 4 inches from the rim, but each drum should be tested to find the best striking area that produces the best tone. If the drum is hit too close to the center it will produce more of a “thud” instead of a good tone and if it is hit too close to the rim it will produce a sound with too much “ping.” A little experimentation will quickly indicate where each drum should be struck.
The basic stroke for timpani is a combination of wrist and finger action that raises the mallet and lets it fall back onto the drum and then allows the mallet to bounce back off the head. For a more staccato sound grip the mallets tighter and use more wrist than fingers with a snapping motion.
Rolls on the timpani should always be played with single strokes unless specifically indicated otherwise. Roll speed will vary frequently according to the demands of the music. The lower the pitch and the softer the dynamic the slower the roll should be. The higher the pitch and the louder the dynamic the faster the roll should be. Remember, the purpose of a roll is usually to sustain the pitch so use the speed that produces the best sounding pitch on each drum.
Muffling the timpani is a technique that requires considerable practice in order to achieve the desired effect consistently. Use the thumb and forefinger to hold the mallet and gently lay the remaining three fingers on the head to stop the ringing. The fingers should muffle the drum at the same location the mallet struck it. This usually must be done rather quickly and care should be taken to produce as little sound as possible. Generally, unless indicated differently, all rests should be muffled. However, always listen to the sound of the ensemble and match what they are doing even if you must allow the heads to ring through rests.
In order to produce a more clear tone quality one can muffle a drum, after it is hit, at the same time another drum is hit even when there are no rests. This requires one hand to muffle as the other hand strikes a different drum. This demands considerable practice, but will cut down on the amount of pitch carry-over.
Finally, mallet choice is extremely important for timpani. Mallets range from soft felt to hard felt to wood. Harder mallets should be used for faster and more technical passages whereas softer mallets should be used for slower and more delicate passages. Unless the composer indicates the type of mallets to use the performer should experiment with different mallets to see which ones produce the most desirable effect.
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...It is in the inner dynamic that our need is greatest. We believe in God, Jesus and the Kingdom of God, but they all lie like an empty, inoperative dream with no feet on the ground and no power to walk.
by Harlow E. Hopkins
As a Christian movement we have stopped short of the one thing that would make all God's preparation and promises into performances in and through us. That one thing is the Holy Spirit.
We have tied God's hands just when He was at the point of dumping everything into our laps. We have stopped short of receiving the Holy Spirit and therefore of everything. It is in and through the Holy Spirit that God gives us everything now.
It is said that Jesus “had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the apostles” (Acts 1:2). He was from that time on commanding and working through the Holy Spirit. If we don't receive the Spirit, we are cutting ourselves off from Christ and God. Their dealings are now from within. It was external; now it is internal-a religion of the Spirit. If you do not receive the Spirit, you automatically shut yourself off from all God promised and Jesus procured for us. We have tied the process of redemption in knots, just where it would be operative.
The silent neglect of the Holy Spirit within our churches is infinitely more devastating, for it leaves a devastating barrenness-forms without force, liturgy without life, maneuvers without master.
O Father, forgive us that we have stopped the Fountain just when it was about to flow. In Jesus' name. Amen.
(taken from Mastery by E. Stanley Jones, published by Abingdon Press, 1955.)
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THE BRASS SPACE
by Phil Norris
Aticulation in Detail
In brass performance, there are two consonants and a few vowels that are suggested by teachers and players in clinics and articles. In this article I'd like to add clarity to the subject and thereby contribute to your effectiveness whether a player or teacher.
If you look at the earliest print sources from the 19th century, there is unanimity about which consonant to use: T. In more recent decades in the latter part of the 1900's, you'll find increasing reference to using a D consonant or suggestions to use T for staccato or marcato and D for legato. I believe the issue is quite simple, and it bears out the earlier suggestion of T.
Try an experiment. Off the instrument, simply blow air and try to use the D consonant. Do it right now! You will immediately find that it's impossible. Why? Because D is a voiced consonant. It requires a vocalization. This is a fact that is sometimes lost with solo singers and more often with choirs, particularly in words ending in “d”. The word “Lord” often sounds like “Lort” in choirs. But on brass instruments, only the T consonant produces an adequate articulation.
The question arises then, “How can a smooth legato be achieved?, Isn't T too hard for smooth passages?” The answer is: for legato, the tongue touches the mouth for only a very short amount of time; for staccato or marcato, the tongue makes contact for longer amounts of time depending on the amount of separation desired.
Contrary to conventional thinking, I prefer to approach tonguing NOT as cutting off the airflow BUT RATHER as a launching of air to create various kinds of note articulations in a range of connected-detached and gentle-explosive. To be most musical, I prefer that my attention be on the note, not the tongue. Perhaps with beginners a certain amount of attention can be given to tongue placement and feel, but as soon as possible, we want attention to go onto the product.
There is one additional articulation option not often considered: starting the tone with a vowel. Like any other kind of articulation it must be practiced regularly so it can be available for gentle but distinct attacks. I like to do these as part of warm-up exercises. A vowel start also has the benefit of avoiding compressing or locking the blowing muscles at the beginning of the breath release. I regularly play what are called “flow studies” where I remove most all articulation and slur everything (of course, for trombone, this is not an option - sorry!). Each phrase (breath) is commenced with a vowel and flows from that point until the breath is expended. The piece is then interrupted (at any point in the phrase) for a large relaxed breath, and then continues as before with a breath start and an unrestricted full flow of breath and sound.
There is a greater variety of vowel possibilities in brass playing than consonants. We choose from the pure vowels (AH, OH, OOH, EE) and some short vowels (IH, EH, UH, OY, Ö - the umlaut “o” from German). For the best sound, the players should use pure, particularly OH or OOH. The short vowels result in more restricted, tight or pinched tone.
The choice of vowel is often linked to register. For example, use AH in the low register and EE in a high register. By this approach, the player is adjusting the oral cavity space to match the register. This is also helpful for younger players with weaker embouchures to produce higher notes with greater ease. It also makes sense that tuba sound requires a much larger oral cavity volume (space) than a trumpet or horn. So, in a broad sense, tuba is an AH/OH instrument, trombone or baritone is an OH/OO instrument, and trumpet or horn is an OO/EE instrument.
However, this approach over-simplifies the issue. Arnold Jacobs suggests using vowels expressively to match the character of desired sound. For example, for a large volume of sound in the high register, I might use an AH vowel; for a small, delicate sound in the low register, I might use an EE or OOH vowel. I believe for players with more developed embouchures, this makes a great deal of sense. In general, the player needs to maximize oral cavity volume regardless of how firmly the lips might be pressed together. This is sometimes expressed as playing with the feeling of an orange or grapefruit in the mouth. For younger players, having them strive for more open vowels in the upper register will build strength and improve tone and intonation.
One last aspect to vowel must be mentioned. I call it “twa-twa.” The name “twa-twa” describes the sound made by vowel changes in the midst of a note: at the beginning of the sound, the vowel is OOH and then mid-note the vowel shifts to AH (or OH). This points out the importance of vowel consistency from the very start of the sound. You'll hear this effect as a tonal shift from dull to clear. For students, simply point it out and most players will immediately notice. They should keep the tone clear and vibrant from the consonant forward.
Consonant & Vowel Combined
In the end, we come up with but a few very useful consonant-vowel combinations for good basic tone production: Trumpet/Horn: TOO (some- times spelled: TU) or TOH; Baritone/Trombone: TOH or TOO/TU; Tuba: TAH or TOH. Other vowels are also possible depending on the register or expressive requirements of the music.
For rapid tonguing (including triple and double tonguing), the more open vowels are essential in order to create best resonance (ring) for each very short note. Sometimes the solution to poor tone on rapid tonguing is keeping the vowel open. The poorer tone is usually the use of a short vowel, typically IH. Replacing the IH vowel with OH or OOH often improves the sound immediately.
Finally, good articulation requires that each tongued note END with a vowel, not a consonant. When players end the note with a T, there is tightness to the tone's conclusion. The note will have an “EET” sound at its end. Simply end each note with the vowel and its quality will be much improved.
Whenever we can simplify the playing process, we should do so. Tonguing is our way of “speaking.” But unlike spoken language, brass players use but one consonant (T) and a few pure vowels, mostly the two more open vowels AH & OH.
Phil Norris is an Associate Professor. of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet.
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MEET BILLY MADISON
Born in Newport, Arkansas, Billy Madison is one of eleven children-7 boys and 4 girls. In addition, he has 23 nephews and nieces and even more great-nephews and nieces.
Newport High School claimed him as a graduate in 1977. From there he went to Arkansas State University and completed a BME in Instrumental Music in 1981. A year later he earned the MM degree in Music Theory & Composition.
In 1988 Madison completed the requirements for the SCCT in Music (Specialist in Community College Teaching).
He is in his eighteenth year as a Band Director in Arkansas Public Schools and is currently Band Director at Newark High School in Newark, Arkansas. He resides in Newport, Arkansas.
Madison is a prolific writer and has produced numerous compositions and arrangements for Band, Choir, Orchestra, Musical Theater, Chamber Ensembles, Instrumental and Vocal Soloists.
A student of Jared Spears & Tom O'Connor, his published works may be found in the catalogs of David E. Smith Publications, Counter-point/RBC Music Publishers, Grand Mesa Music Publishers and Bakers' Plays.
He has been a percuss-ionist with the Delta Arkansas Symphony Orchestra since 1978 (Formerly the Northeast Arkansas Symphony Orchestra).
He attends Newport First Assembly of God, is a member of the Advisory Board and teaches an adult Sunday School class.
Billy Madison has been the editor of “The Percussion Space” since the inception of “Lines and Spaces.”
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THE STRING SPACE
With Strings Attached-Some Wedding Music Do's and Don'ts for Music and Wedding Directors and Brides-To-Be-Part II
by Jay-Martin Pinner
Having played for weddings and receptions for over 30 years I am still amazed at how unpredictable these events can be, everyone's efforts to the contrary not withstanding. To help minimize the number of unwanted surprises that occur musicians summoned to perform should spend time planning and then preparing for the inevitable need for at least one back-up plan.
Select a contact person for the group. One musician from the group should be designated as the group's contact person. As compensation for the extra time involved in planning the music for an event this person receives a “finder's fee” for each gig. This fee is built into the total fee quoted to the bride and groom.
Send a written contract. After the initial contact and phone discussions a contract should be sent to the bride and groom outlining all of the specific details. These details include the date and time of the wedding, the total fee for travel and performing, attire (suits or tuxes?), phone numbers and email addresses, and a specific outline of what music is needed, how long the prelude will be, and if a representative from the group will need to be at the wedding rehearsal. The contract states the total fee which would include the finder's fee, base fee for the wedding and/or reception, and traveling costs for events involving more than thirty minutes travel time. Groups can calculate travel costs by charging by the half hour plus gas or a combination of time and mileage charges.
Secure a deposit. The bride and groom should return the contract with a 25% non-refundable deposit. A deposit guarantees the couple that if a musician is ill or otherwise unable to play the quartet will hire another equally qualified performer to take his place. The bride and groom should not have to be concerned about whether the quartet they hired will show up on the day of their wedding. A deposit also guarantees the musicians some income if the wedding is cancelled. This is especially appropriate if the quartet had to turn down other weddings in order to hold the original date and time open.
Communicate all necessary information. The group's contact person should communicate the date, time, location, and details about transportation and attire to the rest of the group. If the group is hired to play a wedding prelude then the musicians should plan to arrive approximately 45 minutes before the wedding begins in order to play a 25-minute prelude. Additional time will be needed if the quartet is rehearsing with other musicians prior to beginning the prelude.
Organize the music. Prior to the event the contact person should organize the music in three-ring notebooks, one for each instrument, and then type up an “order of service” detailing who plays what when during the prelude, processional, ceremony, recessional and postlude. This information should be typed in a slightly larger than normal type face (14 point works well) on the far left side of a standard size sheet of paper so that performers can place the sheet behind their music with the order showing for easy reference. The notebook of music may be set up with reference numbers for each title within two general sections of secular music and sacred music. For instance “H-12” would indicate a sacred work in the hymn section of the notebook, and “C-5” would indicate a secular work in the classical section of the notebook. The order of service should indicate the number in bold and at least a key word from the title as a double check. This system of organizing music is also invaluable for playing receptions. The quartet can move quickly from one number to the next.
Send a representative to the wedding rehearsal. Usually the contact person will attend the wedding rehearsal as a representative for the group. Some churches require that a representative be present to time the processional and plan appropriate cuts or repeats as necessary to match the timing. (If it is agreeable with the bride and groom, and in accordance with church policy an experienced group need not be present for the rehearsal, especially if it means turning down another wedding job.)
The prelude should be “back-timed” and coordinated with all musicians participating in the prelude. For example, the organist might play a selection that is four minutes long to be followed by two string quartet selections of three minutes each. At that point the back-timing would be ten minutes. If the bride and groom want a twenty-five minute prelude the quartet contact person would plan an additional fifteen minutes of music. All of these musical “events” should be listed on the order of service for each quartet member.
Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department at Bob Jones University in Greenville, SC. In addition to his teaching and performing responsibilities he and his family are free-lance musicians providing professional services for weddings, receptions, recording sessions and corporate events.
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THE WOODWIND SPACE
Breaking in Reeds-Part I
The better the player the fewer reeds he will use. A player's ability and knowledge can be accurately determined by the number of reeds he used over the period of a year. Of course, one must allow for the amount of playing done.
by Harlow E. Hopkins
“My reed went well at the concert last night, but this morning it is terrible.” This appears to be the truth; it is a fact that the reed won't go. The fault is not in the reed, however, but in the player's embouchure, which has changed over night. His lips have rested and his muscles have relaxed; therefore, his pressure on the reed has changed. The same thing happens when one is touring; food, water, etc., are constantly affecting changes in his embouchure.
A flute player does not rush to the store to buy a new head joint when he picks up his flute in the morning and hears a bad tone. No, he works hard to get normal flexibility back in his embouchure. So we can take a tip from flutists and learn that our embouchures are constantly changing more than we suspect-and this is an important point to keep in mind. After playing the new reed for five minutes, the embouchure has changed radically because it has begun to adapt itself to the new reed. How foolish it would be to expect to find the perfect reed in a given moment.
Further, reeds change radically in their behavior the first hours of alternate wetting and drying, and one can never be sure how they will turn out. A few preliminary remarks: (1) Be sure the side edges of the reed are not squeezed against the side of the mouthpiece by the ligature. The pressure of the ligature should be in the center of the reed. (2) The ligature should be about one-fourth of an inch below the lines drawn on most mouthpieces. (3) Do not tighten the upper screw of the ligature-only the bottom screw. It is no exaggeration to say that the reed troubles of 90% of clarinet players are greatly aggravated by not observing the above points.
Here is the routine to follow when preparing new reeds: Select four or five reeds that sound good out of the box. At this stage it does not matter whether they are too strong or too soft, but only that they sound healthy. Wet each reed thoroughly, place it on a glass and massage it for some time until the ends of the tubular fibers which have been cut open are pressed together. Try the reed. If it is too soft clip it to desire strength. If it is too strong do not scrape it yet for it may become soft playing. Repeat the same routine with each reed. Then it is important to leave them alone for some time in order that they may dry out and that the embouchure can rest. After trying five reeds, the embouchure is not worth a dime.
The following time each reed should be played only five minutes, because good, live cane loses its resilience fast in the early stages. Let the reeds dry out for an hour or two and try them again. This time those that are too soft can be clipped to the right strength; those that are too hard can be softened by scraping the lower right edge. At this point it is important to leave the reeds alone for a day, after which they should be played for a few minutes and clipped or scraped. This is the breaking-in period.
By this time a marked difference in playing qualities among the reeds will be noticeable, and the tendency will be to select the best one and play it the most. If you are not in desperate need of a reed, do not play the best of the five, but rather play the worst-the best reed will seem better than it is. Continue the routine of playing, clipping and scraping the reeds for several more days so that the proper resistance can be reached. Not until after the reeds are thoroughly broken in-and only then-should an attempt be made to fix them so that they will vibrate properly.
In the breaking in period the main object was to get the proper resistance in the reed so that it will resist and at the same time be controlled by the pressure of the embouchure and to bring the cane to a point where it will hold up when played. This has been achieved despite the fact that both the reed and the embouchure were in a state of constant flux. At this stage, however, the reed may not play properly-it may have a mediocre tone and produce a satisfactory pp, etc. The remedy is to know how to fix reeds and it would require several articles merely to explain the rudiments of the art.
Two important points should be made, however. (1) Do not use a knife or razor blade to scrape the reed and (2) do not scrape the reed in the center.
(To be continued)
Harlow E. Hopkins is Professor of Music Emeritus at Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, where he continues as Adjunct Professor of Clarinet
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THE LONE ARRANGER
by Dana F. Everson
Listen to the Best
There is no way around it: A major source of help for the arranger is…Classical Music.
(I am using the broad sense of the word “Classical” here, including Baroque, Viennese Classical, and Romantic styles.) Honestly, how long has it been since you seriously sat down in front of a fine sound system and listened to a recorded symphony by Dvorak, or Mozart, or Schubert?
How many live concerts have you been able to attend this year that featured a really outstanding concert band or orchestra?
WHAT IS YOUR LISTENING DIET? You need the musical nutrients found in the great Classic literature of past several centuries! Cultivate a taste for the masters of composition and you will develop a greater sense of creativity, expressive growth, and technical prowess! Well-balanced musical meals will go a long way in building your inner musical ear.
I would like to suggest to you some of the great works (especially instrumental) which can serve as refreshing reminders for orchestration, counterpoint, melodic writing, transitions, variations, and more. If you would put yourself on a regular program of listening to the best of the best, you will surely benefit from what you hear.
You may already recognize most or all of these titles, but in most cases, they are worth a lifetime of re-listening, and re-analysis.
Here are a few of my favorites in no particular order. Consider these, then make your own list and listening plan! Happy dining!
A book that has been a great help to me is CLASSICAL MUSIC: THE 50 GREATEST COMPOSERS AND THEIR 1000 GREATEST WORKS, by Phil G. Goulding, published by Fawcett Columbine, 1992. You may not agree with all of his choices, but it is a gold mine of information and fascinating reading.
- Handel-Messiah; Water Music
- Mozart-Symphonies 35 and 40
- Giovanni Gabrieli-Some really glorious music for brass
- Haydn-Trumpet Concerto in Eb; Symphony 94; String Quartet Op. 76: no. 3
- Tchaikovsky-The Nutcracker; 1812 Overture; Symphony 6; Piano Concerto no. 1
- Shostakovich-Festive Overture; Symphony no. 1
- Liszt-Les Preludes; Liebestraume; Piano Concerto no. 1
- Beethoven-Symphonies 3, 5, 6, and 9; Piano Sonatas 8,14, 23; String Quartets 13 and 14.
- Schubert-Symphony 8; Quintet in A for Piano and Strings; Songs (many!) including Der Erlkonig and the Song Cycle Die schone Mullerin
- Mendelssohn-Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream; Symphony no. 4 in A
- Dvorak-Symphony 9; String Quartet 12
- Chopin-Piano Concerto no. 1 in E minor; most any piano music
- Prokofiev-Peter and the Wolf; Symphony 1; Lieutenant Kije Suite
- Richard Strauss-Til Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
- Berlioz-Symphonies: Harold in Italy; Symphonie Fantastique; Roman Carnival Overture
- Debussy-Piano: Clair de lune, Reverie, Arabesques, Children's Corner Suite; Orchestral: Three Nocturnes for Orchestra
- Saint-Saens-Carnival of the Animals
- Benjamin Britten-Variations on a Theme by Purcell
- Ravel-his orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, String Quartet in F; Pavane pour une infante defunte
- Rossini-William Tell Overture
- Grieg-Piano Concerto in A Minor; Peer Gynt Suites
- Vivaldi-The Four Seasons
- Bizet-L'Arlesienne Suites 1, 2
- Morton Gould-American Salute (as well as several other band and orchestral pieces)
- Leroy Anderson-A variety of lighter pieces for orchestra
Dana Everson holds the B.M.E. degree from Michigan State University, Master's Degree in Saxophone Performance, Michigan State University and a Master of Sacred Music from Pensacola Christian College. He has over 200 published works.
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“Real faith is not the stuff dreams are made of; rather it is tough, practical, and altogether realistic. Faith sees the invisible but it does not see the nonexistent.” To Table Of Contents
A. W. Tozer
“To sin by silence when they should protest makes cowards out of men.”
The following article was obtained several years ago at a convention. It is the work of the late Gino Cioffi, former principal clarinet of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. David E. Smith Publications has been associated with hundreds of dealers over the years and continues to add others almost weekly. Nearly every state in the United States is represented as well as five international countries. Music has been sold in every state and province in North America and 25 international countries.
Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
St. Francis of Assisi